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The Millett Hybrid Maxed - Tweaks

Millett MAX Tube CCS (Constant Current Source)

The Millett MAX implements a new CCS for the first time: a dual-transistor, dual-resistor constant current sink, as it is otherwise known as a common transistor circuit. In the case of the MAX, however, it is operating as constant current source. The operation of the circuit is simple. If the voltage across the emitter resistor of QA1 attempts to exceed 0.65V (the base turn-on voltage for a silicon transistor), then QA2 will turn on, and short out all base current to QA1 except for exactly that amount required to maintain the specified current. If the collector current of QA2 falls, then the voltage across the emitter resistor also falls. This turns off QA1 until the current is again stable at the preset value.

The preset value is determined by: I = Vbe/RA8 , where Vbe is the base turn-on voltage for a silicon transistor, 0.65A. Traditionally, the CCS current for the Millett has been set at 0.56A. Therefore, to get 0.56A, we need a resistor value for RA8 that results in 0.56A for Vbe:

R = 0.65/0.56 = 1.16K ohm.

RA9 needs to be at least 10 times RA8. So, RA9 = 11.6K ohm, or greater.
Single or small number purchase quantity is not possible for Vishay-Dale resistors at that size from the preferred outlet. So, a value of 1.13K ohm was selected for RA8, and 11.3K ohm for RA9. This results in a CCS current of: I = 0.65 / 1.16K = 0.575ma .

Referring to the tube operation curves below, one can see that this value falls in the midrange for the typical Millett supply voltage. Other resistor combinations may be tried, but this one is closest to traditional Millett parameters. Divide 0.65 by the desired current to obtain the resistor value. Then size RA9 for at least 10 times the value of RA8.



This type of CCS was chosen for several reasons:
  • The combination of two of the same type transistors used elsewhere on the board is economical,
  • likewise, the cost of the two resistors is trivial, and
  • unlike traditional CCS diodes or depletion mosfets, availability is good worldwide and is not exclusive to a single supplier.


  • Finally, since the current is set by adjusting the values of the two resistors, the CCS is adjustable without replacing the semiconductor.

    file last changed:Sunday, September 7, 2008 12:34:44 PM
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